|Map of Pangaea|
970 BCE Salvage of royal Egyptian mummies to secret cache at Deir al Bahri.
961+ BCE Solomon begins his reign and marries the daughter of Pharaoh Pasebkhanu II. Pasebkhanu sends his daughter off with 80,000 builders and 1000 musical instruments.
950 BCE Kushite commander Aserkhamen conducts military campaigns to restore order to Egypt.
945-715 BCE Reign of Dynasty XXII; Kushites and Canaanites (Hittites &Phoenicians) establish a large number of ports on the North African shore, and on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and western Sicily and on the shore of Spain.
945 - 924 BCE Shishak I (Sheshonq I) married to sister of the wife of king Solomon.Hadad the Edomite prince escapes to Egypt and finds refuge in Shishak’s palace. Lady Talipenes, Pharaoh’s sister-in-law, marries Hadad and gives birth to their child Genubath. Tamrin Chief of Makeda’s Navy tells her about the Temple project in Jerusalem. Kandake (Queen) Makeda travels to Jerusalem to visit Solomon. Tamrin brings gold, ebony and precious stones to Solomon for use in the Temple. Jeroboam, commander of Solomon’s armies rebels and escapes to Egypt to take refuge in Shishak’s palace in Egypt.
936 BCE Pharaoh Shishak invades Israel and attacks Jerusalem.
931 BCE King Solomon dies and is succeeded by his son Rehoboam amid political instability.
900 BCE Timbuctu is a thriving and major metropolis. Africans in what is now Burkina Faso, Cote d' Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon are producing sophisticated high art "Nok" terracottas.
894 BCE Pharaoh Osorkon I, called "Zerah the Ethiopian" by the Hebrews, invades the Levant and deploys one million troops against Asa king of Judah.Osorkon suffers the worst defeat recorded in the Bible. The African troops are killed and the survivors retreat to Gerer.
850-825 BCE Takelot II rules in Egypt, but his reign is full of civil war.
850 BCE Napata replaces Sheba as the royal capital of Kush. Rulers in Napata begin burials at Kurru.
818-715 BCE Reign of Egyptian Dynasty XXIII.
814 BCE Tyrian (Canaanite) Princess Elissa founds Carthage after her brother kills her husband.
ca. 800 BCE After Pharaoh Shishak's death Egypt disintegrated. The Delta princes at war with the Pharaoh Osorkon IV of Dyn.XXII. Kushites armies in Libyaunder command of Kushite Prince Kashta (and king in Libya) enter Egypt to restore order.
790-760 BCE Reign of Kushite Pharaoh Alara, founder of Dynasty XXV, starting the "Late Period in Egypt and the reunification of the Nile valley.
765 BCE Prince Piankhy (grand nephew of Alara) defeats rebellion in Lower Egypt.
760-656 BCE Reunification of Egypt under the Kushite Dynasty XXV.
760-747 BCE Reign of Kushite Pharaoh Kashta.Kashta control all of the Nile Valley and western Africa including the Mediterranean coast. Kashta drives Osorkon IV (Dyn. XXII) back into the Egyptian Delta. Kashta is buried at Kurru in Kush.
751 BCE Kushite King Piankhi becomes pharoah of Egypt. Piye adopted the throne name Menkheperre ("the manifestation of Ra abides") but was much more passionate (in common with many kings of Kush) about the worship of the god Amun.
750-700 BCE Phoenician alphabet arrives in Greece. Oldest Greek text titled “the Ethiopians” is written. Homer (or other writers whose works are attributed to Homer), quoting "The Ethiopians" writes Odyssey and Hesiod, describing the Trojan War. Assyrian attacks destabilize Israel, Judah, and Phoenicia despite Kushite protection.
747-716 BCE Reign of Kandake Neferukekashta and Pharaoh Piankhy, son of Kashta are co-rulers of Kushite Empire.
754 BCE Tiglath-pileser III conquers Babylonia and founds the Assyrian Empire. The Assyrian empire quickly becomes the mortal enemy of the Kushite empire. Piankhy controls all of Egypt and uses siege tactics against the Assyrians. To protect the estates of the god Amon, the Pharaoh Piankhy makes Thebes a Kushite province and no longer under Egyptian jurisdiction.
ca. 730 BCE Piankhy fights Tefnakht (Dyn. XXIV) in the Delta and halts Tefnakht’s drive to the south.
ca. 730 BCE Piankhy erects stela.
744-612 BCE Height of Assyrian power. Prince Taharka commands Kushite and Egyptian divisions in the Peloponese to defend allied nations against Assyrian attack.
725BCE Assyrians capture and obliterate Hittite, Phoenician and other Canaanite city states including Sidon, Tyre (Phoenician) and Israel.
716 BCE Death of Piankhy; he is buried at Kurru.
716-701 BCE Reign of Kandake Amenirdis I and Pharaoh Shabaka,(younger brother of Piankhy); Shabaka sends troops to supports Judea at Al-Taku in the battle against the Assyrians under Sennacherib. In order to divert the Assyrians, Shabaka stimulates revolts in the Levant.Shabaka rules Egypt from Thebes. Shabaka's reign saw an enormous amount of building work undertaken throughout Egypt, especially at the city of Thebes. He also struggled to keep Egypt free from the domination of the Assyrian empire under Sargon II, a task in which he was successful largely because Sargon was distracted by conflicts in other regions. The most famous relic from Shabaka's reign is the 'Shabaka stone' on which is recorded ancient documents the king ordered preserved. Despite being relative newcomers to Egypt, Shabaka and his family were immensely interested in Egypt's past and the art of the period reflects their tastes which harked back to earlier periods. At the end of his life he is buried at Kurru.
701-690 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Shabataka (Shebitqu). A stela from Kawa tells of Shebitku asking his brothers, including Taharqa, to come to him at Thebes from Nubia. He is buried at Kurru.
701 BCE Shabataka deploys Kushite army under command of Prince Taharka to save Jerusalem under the Judean king Hezekiah. The Kushite army kills 185,000 Assyrian troops, breaks Assyrian siege of JeruSalem, and relieves Phoenician,Greek and Hittite allies from Assyrian attacks.
700-500 BCE Heavy Greek colonization of Sicily, Southern Italy, Southern Provence,Andalusia and Cyrenaica, encircling Carthaginian territory.
691 BCE Taharka leads expedition to Spain.
690 BCE Coronation of Taharka, aged about 32, at Memphis (meets his mother at coronation after 18 years away from home).
690-664 Taharka adds to the temple at Jebel Barkal (690 BCE). Taharqa indulged in rebuilding the temple at Kawa, across the Nile from present-day Dongola,which became a major center for the Nubian kings. He built at a number of other sites in Nubia, as well as performing restoration work at the temple of Karnak. Pharaoh Taharka is ruler of Libya as well as Kush.Ruling from Memphis and Thebes he continually fought to protect the Nile valley from the Assyrians led by Esarhaddon (680-669), the son and successor of Sennacherib. Taharka also sought the restoration of Pharaonic authority, religion and architecture.
680-669 BCE Camels introduced to Egypt by Assyrian King Esarhaddon. Later camels became critical in trans-Saharan trade. In order to divert Esarhaddon away from the Nile, Taharka stimulates revolts at Sidon and Tyre in Phoenicia. These revolts were crushed. Esarhaddon attacks Tanis and Memphis in Egypt.
674 BCE Tharka defeats invasion of Egypt by Esarhaddon.
671 BCE Esarhaddon speeds across Sinai with his camel cavalry and meets the Kushite and Egyptian forces of Taharka in the eastern Delta; Taharka is defeated and withdraws from Tanis to Memphis.
670 BCE Iron-smelting begins in Meroë. Iron is not used in Egypt until 650. Taharka retakes the Delta from the Assyrians
669 BCE Assyrians under Esarhaddon siege and sack Memphis; son and wife of Taharka are taken captive by Esarhaddon to Assyria; Taharka resumes sends troops to support Phoenicians against Assyrian attacks.
668BCE Esarhaddon dies on route back to Egypt. Ashurbanipal, (668-627) son of Esarhaddon resumes military campaign and sacks Memphis.
667 BCE Sardanapalus conquers Lower Egypt. Taharka withdraws from Egypt to Napata.
664 BCE Taharka dies and is buried at Kurru pyramid field. Psammetichus I restores the Egyptian independence and founds the XXVI th Dynasty. He is assisted against Assyria by Lydian troops sent by King Gyges. The XXVI Dynasty will last until 525 BCE.
664-653 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Bakara Tanutamun (Tanwetamani), nephew of Taharka, in Upper Egypt, Kush and Sub-Saharan Africa.
664BCE Tanutamun regains control of Memphis and the entire Nile valley,but with weak support from the Delta princes under Assyrian pressure and with rival claims to rule Lower Egypt by Psammetichos I (664-610 BC),he withdraws to Thebes.
661 BCE Tanutamun’s army is defeated at Memphis. Ashurbanipal attacks Thebes.
656-590 BCE Kushite withdrawal back to the Sudan and central Africa. Napata becomes center for worship of Amun.
654 BCE Carthage founds colony in the Balearic Islands at Ibiza.
653 BCE Death of Tanutamun; He is the last king to be buried at Kurru
653-643 BCE Reign of Atlanersa
643-623 BCE Reign of Senkamanisken (father of Aspelta and Anlamani); Buried at Nuri
625 BCE Naucratis established in Delta for Greek traders.
623-593BCE Reign of Anlamani. Campaigns against the Blemmyes in the Easterndesert. Anlamani was crowned at Kawa, and was buried at Nuri.
610 BCE Necho II of Egypt tries to link the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal.
608 BCE Necho defeats Josiah, King of Judah, at the Battle of Megiddo (armageddon).
606 BCE Nineveh, capital of Assyria, is captured by the Chaldean Babylonians and the Medes, establishing the Chaldean Empire.
601 BCE Nebuchadnezzar attacks Egypt in 601.
600 BCE Pharaoh Necho commissions Phoenician sailors to circumnavigate Africa.The voyage takes 3 years but is successful. Phoenicians spend part of the time in Southern Africa, long enough to grow and harvest food to complete their journey.
593 BCE The Temple of the Sun is constructed in Meroë. Reign of Aspelta [593-568] who begins attacks against Necho II in Egypt; Aspelta is buried at Nuri.
591BCE Aspelta defeated in attempt to reclaim Egypt from the Saite XXVI th Dynasty. The border of Kush established at 2nd cataract.
590 BCEPsammetichos II (595-589, Dyn XXVI) invades Kush to 3rd cataract, andfights at the northern plain of Dongola seizing 4,200 African captives.He also hacks out inscriptions to pharaohs of the XXV th Dynasty, and his soldiers put graffiti inscriptions at Abu Simbel. He threatens the safety of Napata. Kushites reinstate Saba (Sheba) the old capital.Pharoah Necho II escapes from Egypt and spends the rest of his life as a refugee in Kush.
590 BC - 350 AD Rise and gradual decline of Kush at Saba. Saba is famed for notable iron-production technology; Kings of Kush still proclaimed as "Lords of Two Lands" (meaning Egypt).
586 BCE Jerusalem is destroyed, and the Jews are exiled in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar; many of them, including the Prophet Jeremiah, flee to Egypt and settle there.
580 BCE First Attempts by Greeks to drive Carthageans out of Silicily
574 BCE Tyre falls to Nebchadnezzar, making Carthage the leading Phoenician center.
570-526 BCE Amasis rules Egypt.
568-555 BCE Reign of King Aramatelqo in Kush
550 BCE Carthage allies with the Etruscans against the Greeks. Carthaginian force led by Malchus defeats Greeks in Sicily, but is vanquished in Sardinia. Malchus banished, marches on Carthage, is caught and executed.Carthaginian colonies formed along coast of Africa (Hadrumetum,Leptis).
539 BCE Cyrus II takes Babylon, founding the Persian Empire. All of Phoenicia in the Levant falls to Cyrus the Great of Persia, only the Phoenician colonies, under Carthage, in Africa are left sovereign.
538 Death of Cyrus, succeeded by his son Cambyses. Cambyses mother is an Egyptian princess.
535 BCE Carthage, with Etruscans, destroys Phocaean colony in Corsica and closes Sardinia-Corsica off to the Greeks.
529-521 BC Reign of Persian King Cambyses in Egypt, after his defeat of PsamtikIII in 525 at Pelusium. He captures Thebes but is repulsed by the Kushites.
525-398 BC Persian Dynasty XXVII
524 BC Cambyses campaigns in Kush, and renames Saba (Sheba) after his sister Meroe. The Kushites counter attack and drive Cambyses army out of Kush.
514 BC Carthage defeats the Spartan Dorieus' attempt to colonize Libyan coast.
507 BCE First Carthagean treaty with Rome
500 BCE Hanno sails down west African coast. His account of the voyage is lost and a
Greek version written in 3 AD tells of the account, probably with some inaccuracies.