|Map of Pangaea|
CHRONOLOGY [100,000 BCE - 1 BCE]
498 BCE Hippocrates and Theron seize control in Syracuse and attempt to throw Phoenicians off western part of the island.
487-485 BC Revolt in Upper Egypt.
486 BCE Death of Darius, Xerxes comes to power.
480 BCE Carthagean Alliance with Persia fails to destroy Greeks, military defeat in Sicily as fleet is cut off by superior Athenian forces (Himera). Revolution overthrows Mago dynasty and establishes Court of 104 Magistrates. Carthaginian force under Hamilcar the Magonid defeated by Sicilian Greeks at Himera cutting off access to the East. Hamilcar commits suicide on the battlefield.
479-450 BCE Carthage conquers most of Tunisia. Colonies in North Africa founded or strengthened. Mago's expedition across the Sahara. Sataspes, a relative of king Xerxes of Persia, is forced to sail around Africa but fails and returns home after entering African cities and eating some cows belonging to the short-statured citizens.
474 BC Carthage defeats Etruscans at sea battle off Cumae
470 BCE Hanno, the Carthaginian, sails along the African coast from Ceuta, i.e., Spanish Morocco, extending Carthaginian trade southward as far as present-day Nigeria and the Cameroon mountains.
466 BC Benghazi, Libya: founded as capital of Cyrenaica
462-454 BC Pericles of Athenian alliance captures Memphis, Egypt (460-454); Revolt in Egypt against the Persians. Romans give support to Egyptians.
450-410 BC Jewish Military colony in Egypt on Nile island of Yeb; according to later excavation and discovery, the colony appears to worship several gods includes Yahu (YHW), Eshem ('SM),goddess Anath ('NT), Bethel (BYT'L) & Herem.
430 BCE Herodotus reaches Aswan. He writes The Histories describing Meroe as Africa’s leading metropolis and industrial center.
410 BC Temple of Yahu (YHW) on Nile island of Yeb is destroyed. Phoenicians in Spain join with Celtiberians to secede from Carthage, denying the state important silver and copper revenues. Overland tin trade cut off. Himilco's expeditions in the Atlantic. Hanno's expeditions to Morocco and Senegal.
409 BCE After building a fleet and recruiting mercenaries in 415, Carthage invades Sicily, precipitating a war that lasts 100 years. Carthage initiates attempts to conquer Sicily. Hannibal,grandson of Hamilcar, takes the fortified towns of Selinus and Himera by use of siege towers.
405 BCE Hannibal Mago and hundreds of troops die in epidemic outside fortified town of Acragas. Himilco, his relative, takes over command, is defeated by force out of Syracuse, and has supply disrupted in naval action. Syracusan forces strengthen garrison. Carthaginian squadron breaks through Greek blockade -- the besieged escape under cover ofnight, Punic forces collect spoils. Himilco takes town of Gela, defeating Syracusan force, then takes town of Camarina. Himilco marches on Syracuse. Army is laid low by epidemic. Himilco seeks peace. Syracuse grants control of most of Sicily and must pay tribute to Carthage. Treaty confirms Dionysius I asdictator (tyrannos) of Syracuse. First Sicilian War concluded.
404-369 Reign of Kushite King Harsiyotef; fought against Blemmyes in eastern desert. Buried at Nuri
398 BCE Dionysius sacks Motya --Carthaginians permanently relocate main Sicilian base to fortified town of Lilybaeum.
397 Himilco drives Dionysius back to Syracuse and resumes siege. In naval action, sinks or boards 100 Syracusan naval vessels and takes 20,000 prisoners.
396 BCE Epidemic lays Punic forces low for a third time in Sicily. Dionysius capitalizes and defeats Himilco in pitched battle. He survives, but upon return to Carthage, starves himself to death. Fighting continues.
393 BCE Carthaginian force under Mago,nephew of Himilco, defeated trying to re-take Messana.
392 BCE Mago defeated a second time.Truce signed.
390 BCE Brennus, leader of the Gauls,sacks Rome.
384 BCE Carthage renews war, initiating minor skirmishes.
380 BCE 30th Dynasty founded by Nekhtnebf I, last African dynasty of Egypt
375 BCE Carthage defeated at Cabala --Mago and 10,000 soldiers killed. Mago's son Himilco defeats Dionysius nearHimera -- truce favorable to Carthage concluded.
367 BCE Dionysius attacks Carthaginian base at Lilybaeum -- stopped when fleet defeated by warships under Hanno theGreat.
366 BCE Dionysius I dies, still at war with Carthage.
360 BCE Hanno the Great crucified following unsuccessful attempt to usurp power.
360-342 BC Reign of last Egyptian Pharaoh Nectanebo II of the XXX Dynasty (380-343 BC)
350 BCE Carthage now leading Western power, is allied with Egypt and Kush.
348 BCE Second Carthagean treaty with Rome.
342-333 BC Second Persian conquest of Egypt; The last Pharaoh of Egypt Nectanebo II (Dyn. XXXI) flees to Kush.
335-315 BC Reign of Kushite King Nastasen; fought against the Blemmyes and fearful of Persian and Greek attacks.The last Kushite to rule from Napata.
334 BCE At the Battle of the Granicus, Clitus Niger the Black, saves Alexander the Great's life. Carthage makes peace with the Greek empire and with the Lagos monarchy in Egypt.
332 BCE Siege and Defeat of Tyre andGaza by Alexander the Great of Macedonia; rout of Persians; Conquest of Egypt and end of Persian domination welcomed by Africans (Egyptians, Kushites and Carthageans). Greek expeditions in many parts of Africa; Greek language and culture introduced.
331 BCE Foundation of Alexandria;
327 BCE At Makaranda in Samarkand,Persia, during a drunken rage Alexander murders Cleitus Niger, the African King of Bactria, foster brother of Alexander and commander of the "royal squadron" of the Greek/Macedonian armies under Phillip and Alexander. Anaxagoras, the sceptical philospher in Alexander's entourage, justifies Alexander's murder of Cleitus on the grounds that, by definition, all the king's acts were just. The troops sign a petition to exonorate Alexander from responsibility for the murder.
323 BCE Alexander dies
323-282 BCE Ptolemy I: satrap of Egypt,disciple of Aristotle, moved remaining Jews of Judea to Alexandria &founded Museum in 323, Library in 307, ruled Syria 319-314, in 305 named Soter(Savior), founds Ptolemaic Empire of Egypt
310 BCE Carthaginian force under Hamilcar, grandson of Hanno the Great, defeats Greek force at Himera.
309 BCE Agathocles sails force of 14,000to Africa. Carthage meets with 40,000 foot, 1000 cavalry and 2000 chariots under Bomilcar and Hanno. Greeks are victorious, Carthage losing 3000 on the battlefield, but city is impregnable. Siege of Syracuse continues.
308 BCE Greeks form local allies against Carthage -- Egypt contributes 10,000. Greeks control Tunisian province and fighting between Carthagean and Greek/Egyptians continues.
308 BCE Bomilcar tries to make himself dictator in Carthage. Is defeated and tortured to death.
307 BCE Greek victory outside Syracuse.Hamilcar captured and killed.
307 BCE While Agathocles oversees events in Syracuse, Carthage defeats the Greek and allied forces. Despite Syracusan reinforcement, Greek cause in Africa is doomed. Greeks desert to Carthaginian commanders Hanno and Himilco in vast numbers. Treaty favorable to Carthage concluded.
306 BCE Third Carthagean treaty with Rome.
305-284 BCE BCE Ptolemy I Soter, rules from Alexandria.
300 BCE Massive African migration southward ahead of the expanding Sahara. Pytheas explores the Atlantic,Euthymenes the coasts of Africa.
289 BCE Agathocles dies. Pre-wardivision of Sicily resumes. 3rd Sicilian War ends.
279 BCE Pyrrhus of Epirus, relative of Alexander the Great, invades southern Italy and Sicily. Defeats Phoenicians and forces them off the island, leaving Lilybaeum as the only remaining stronghold.
279 BCE Agreement with Rome against Pyrrhus.
285 BCE 300-foot-tall lighthouse on the island of Pharos in Alexandria's harbor serves as a landmark for ships in the eastern Mediterranean. Light from its wood fire, reflected by convex mirrors at its top, can be seen for miles. Built by Sostratus of Cnidus, it is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and will remain an important navigational aid for 1600 years.
284-247 BCE Reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
280-274 BCE Ptolemy II raids Lower Kush for captives, livestock, and has hunting or trading expeditions for elephants in Meroë.
277? BCE Carthage sinks 70 of Pyrrhus'110 ships and Pyrrhus gives up the war.
275 BCE Manetho: Egyptian High Priest wrote "History of Egypt" in Greek.
274 BCE Ptolemy II wages first war against the Seleucids under Antiochus I.
272 BCE A woman hurls a tile from a rooftop as Pyrrhus invades Argos, killing him before he can begin his second invasion of Sicily against the Carthageans.
270 BCE Napatan period of Kush comes to an end. The incident that marks the end of the period of Kushite history was the refusal of Emperor/Pharaoh Arkamani to commit suicide on orders of the college of priests of Amun, at the Forbidden Golden Temple Palace of Napata. Arkamani defies convention by refusing to die, and instead send his army to occupy the temple. According to Diodorus, Arkamani ordered the massacre of the priests. The worship of Amun was superceded by that of Apedemak, the Lion God.The Kushites then abandon use of Egyptian writing and other shared cultural traits and adopted a different culture.
264 BCE Roman public gladiator combats begin. Many Africans will excel and die in this combat. During the first Punic War the Carthaginian army is commanded by Hamilcar Barkas, an African and father of Hannibal.
264-241 BCE First Punic War between Rome and Carthage.
260 BCE First Kushite King Arakamani-qu (Ergamenes) to be buried at Meroë (Bejrawiya cemetery); Arakakamani had studied the Greek language. Expansion of cattle and elephant hunting at Musawwarates-Sufra in Butana plain; expansion of iron production.
263 BCE First War between Carthage and Rome begins over Sicily.
261 BCE Carthage raids Italian coast.Rome builds its first fleet. Carthaginian defeat at sea off Mylae. Commander Hannibal crucified. Victory at Thermae.
260-253 BCE Second Syrian war between Ptolemy II and Antiochus II.
257 BCE Another sea defeat and Romans land in Africa, take Tunis. Carthage, under forces led by Hasdrubal and Bostzer, defeats Rome before the gates, largely with Numidian cavalry, led by Greek mercenary leader Xanthippus.
256 BCE Hanno the Great II expands territory in North Africa.
256 BCE - 253 AD During the Battle of Ecnomus in [256 BC] more than 700 ships are engaged. After this naval victory,the Romans invade Africa by sea. Thousands of Africans serve in Roman army
253 BCE Rome wins a brilliant naval victory off the Aegates Islands, west of Sicily, cutting off African supply bases. Hasdrubal defeated outside Panormus and is executed by his own forces.Truce called.250 BCE Synagogues: places to study Torah (Mosaic Law) appear
253 BCE Antiochus II married Berenice,daughter of Ptolemy II.
250 BCE Translation of Jewish Bible into Greek.
247 BCE Hannibal born in Carthage, later to become general of Carthagian army
247 BCE Hamilcar Barca re-organizes forces on Sicily, but receives no reinforcement.
246-222 BCE Reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes; has expedition in Nubia led by Eudoxus and he wages war against Seleucus II in Third Syrian War (246-241). Ptolemy III marries Berenice of Cyrene (daughter of Magus King of Cyrene).
245 BCE Babylon and Susa fall to the Egyptian armies of Ptolemy III.
243 BCE An additional year, theso-called leap year, is included in the Egyptian calendar. Ptolemy III is recalled from Syria by a revolt in Egypt; he ceases his martial interests and his support of the Egyptian army.
241 BCE War between Carthage and Rome over Silicy ends in defeat of Carthage. Sicily is lost, Carthagean fleet destroyed and finances ruined due to crippling indemnity.
241-237BCE Mercenaries under Carthage revolt and stir up poverty-stricken peasants in Libya and Utica. Eventually the mercenaries are defeated by Hamilcar. Rome obtains Sardinia-Corsica as price of staying neutral in the war to suppress mercenary revolt.
237 BCE Carthagean army under Hamilcar Barca, 33, invades the Iberian Peninsula. Hamilcar Barca reconquers Spain.
228 BCE Carthagean General Hamilcar Barca falls in battle. Command of his army in the Iberian Peninsula passes tohis son-in-law Hasdrubal.
238 BCE Rome captures Sardinia then Corsica from Carthage
222-205 BCE Reign of Ptolemy IV Epiphanes; had good relations with Meroë with whom he traded for elephants.
221-204 BCE Ptolemy IV builds in the Dodekaschoenos.
221 BCE Carthaginian general Hasdrubalis assassinated. Command of the troops is assumed by Hannibal, 26, a son of the late Hamilcar Barca, and his brother Hasdrubal. Egyptian medical studies at Alexandria are supported by Ptolemy IV, who is weaker than his predecessors but devoted to the pursuit of science.
219-217 BCE Antiochus III of Syria seizes the province of Coele-Syria from Egypt, initiating a Fourth Syrian War. Between Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III. Egypt is saved by intervention of Egyptian troops at the battle of Raphia.
218-201 BCE Second Punic War begins as a Carthaginian army under Hannibal attacks Rome's Hispanic allies. He besieges the town of Sagunto, whose inhabitants eat their own dead rather than surrender but are eventually forced to yield. He crosses the Alps withAfrican elephants and defeats Roman forces of Cornelius Scipio at the Ticino River and again at the Trebbia River.
217 BCE The Battle of Lake Trasimene in Umbria June 24 ends in victory for Hannibal, who nearly destroys a large Roman army led by Gaius Flaminius. Carthaginians and Gauls kill some 16,000 Romans,including Flaminius, and turn the lake red with blood. Egyptian hoplites underPtolemy IV Philopater crush the Seleucid army at Raphia
216 BCE The Battle of Cannae August 2 ends in victory for Hannibal, whose 40,000-man army defeats a heavily armored Roman force of 70,000. Some 50,000 Roman and allied troops are killed, 10,000 are taken prisoner, but Hannibal lacks the catapults and battering rams needed to besiege Rome and contents himself with laying waste the fields of Italy,forcing Rome to import grain at war-inflated prices. Greek sovereigns Philip V of Macedonia and Hiero of Syracuse join Carthage's cause.214-205 BCE Antigonid Kings of Macedon, attacked by Rome forsiding with Carthage in 1st Macedonian War
210-205 BCE Scipio with aid of Numidian Prince Massinissa conquers Spain for Rome. Carthage backs rival Numidian Syphaxwho along with Hasdrubal Gisco is defeated by Scipio in two successive battles. Scipio invades Africa, takes Tunis.
207 BCE The Battle of Metaurus in Umbria ends Hannibal's hopes of success in Italy. A Carthaginian army under Hannibal'sbrother Hasdrubal is defeated by the Romans under the consuls Claudius Nero and Livius Salinator. Hasdrubal is killed in the battle.
204 BCE Roman forces under P. Cornelius Scipio (Scipio Africanus) besiege Carthage. Carthaginians immolate 100 boys of noble birth in an effort to propitiate the god Moloch to raise the Roman siege. Mago is defeated in northern Italy attempting to reinforce Hannibal. A peace treaty is declared and Hannibal returns to Africa.
204-185 BCE Kush regains control of Lower Nubia and foments revolts in Egypt.
204-180 BC Reign of Ptolemy V Philometor. Inscription of Rosetta Stone.
203-200 BC Philip and Antiochus plot against Egypt.
202 BCE Carthaginan attack on Roman convoy which has run aground re-opens the war. Hannibal defeated at Zama to end Second War with Rome. Fleet reduced to ten triremes, domain limited to easternTunisia, Massinissa installed as king of the Numidians at Cirta (Constantine), high indemnities and Carthage denied permission to wage war.
202-150 BCE Trade with North Africa andGreece continues. Agriculture improved to bring in new revenues.
200 BCE Greek geographer Erastosthenes describes Nubia. "Nok" high culture ceases.
196 BC Foundation of library at Pergamun.
195 Hannibal becomes Suffete. Statereform, new methods of election in Carthage.
194 BCE Hannibal flees to court of Antiochus to escape his Roman enemies.
185? BCE Terence born in Libya, later to be enslaved and sold in Rome where he will become writer of drama.
183 BCE Hannibal dies by his own hand to escape Romans in Bithynia.
181-145 BCE Reign of Ptolemy VI, reactivates Nubian gold mines and regains control of the Dodekaschoenos to resume temple construction or addition projects.
170-168 BCE War between Ptolemy VI and Antiochus IV of Syria.
166-164 BCE Jewish (Maccabean) revolt against Antiochus IV who desecrates the temple at Jerusalem and forces Hellenization. The Jewish celebration of Hanukah commemorates the miracle of this time that made a little oil in a lamp burn for eight days.
164-163 BCE Flight of Ptolemy VI from Egypt.
159 BC Terence of Libya arrives in Romeas slave, and begins to write comic dramas including: Andria, Hecyra, Heautontimorumenos, Eunuchus, Phormio, and Adelphi.
150 BCE Kandake Shanakdakheto has first clearly dated inscription in Meroitic cursive. Carthage attacks Numidians in response to Massinissa's land grabs. Numidia victorious and further indemnities exacted.
149 BCE Rome declares war in retaliation for treaty violation.
149-146 BCE Third and last Punic war. Carthage falls to Scipio Aemilianus. Romans sack Carthage and kill 450,000 Africans. City burnt to the ground. "Delenda est Carthago." Corinthis also destroyed. In the process of the war Polybius, a Greek historian, sails down along the west coast of Africa in ships lent to him by his friend Scipio Aemilianus.
145 BCE Death of Ptolemy VI. Aristarchus and other intellectuals of the Alexandria library flee with the rise of PtolemyVIII.
145-130 BC Reign of Ptolemy VIII, Physcon.
112-101 BC Marius & Sulla of Rome defeat King Jugurtha of Numidia
111-80 BCE Bocchus I rules Mauretania
105 BCE 1st College of Technology in Alexandria, founded by mathematician Heron
100 BCE Saqia (eskalay) water wheel introduced. Long conquest inscription recorded on stela of Qore (also written“Gore”) Tanyidamani. The Ghana Empire on the Niger by now has a dynasty of 118 royal generations.
80 BCE Ptolemy XI appointed by General Sulla (Dictator of Rome); Ptolemy married former Queen, murdered her and was then murdered by irate mob.
80-51 BC Reign of Ptolemy XII, `the Piper'
73-71 BC Romans finally crush the slave revolt of Spartacus in Southern Italy.
56-34 BCE Artavazd II, Armenian King, playwright, murdered by Antony & Cleopatra
51 BCE Cleopatra daughter of Ptolemy II, becomes Pharaoh/Queen and last independent ruler of Egypt.51-30 BCE Reign of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV, initially asco-regents, then she rules alone.
ca. 50 BCE Diodorus terms Kush as the home of Egyptians, and of civilization itself. Reigns of Kandakes Amanirenas and Amanishakheto.
49 BCE Queen Cleopatra VII is deposed by her brother Ptolemy XIII
50-31 BCE Bocchus II ruler of Mauretania
47 BCE Library of Ptolemy I Soter in Alexandria destroyed by fire
44-21 BC Period of activity of the geographer Strabo, who waxes eloquent about the breasts of Meroe’s women.37-36 BC Mark Antony in Egypt.
31 BC Octavian is victorious at the battle of Actium. Cleopatra and Antony are defeated.
30-28 BC Roman conquest of Egypt under Octavian; suicides of Cleopatra and Antony.
29 BC Reign of Gore (queen mother) Nyatal and Kandake Amanirena. Romans invade Kush and ambush the Kandake (Candace) Amanirena. Her bodyguard defeats the Roman legions and Kushites sack southern Egypt and set fire to Thebes.
28 BC Cornelius Gallus, Roman prefect, meets Kushite envoys at Philae temple to have peace negotiations for southern Egypt.
27 BC-14 AD Reign of Roman Caesar Augustus.
27 BC Roman geographer/historian Strabo visits Aswan. Earthquake in Egypt damages the "Colossi of Memnon".
25 BCE Octavian Augustus gives Mauretania (in addition to Numidia to which he had been restored in 31BC) to Juba II as a client kingdom. Juba's kingdom includes modern Morocco and Mauretania. [Juba II married Cleopatra-Selene, daughter of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony. Juba and Cleopatra-Selene's son Ptolemy was murdered by his cousin Caligula emperor of Rome. Their grand son Drusilla II married Agrippa I of Judah].
24 BCE Kush attacks Roman Egypt, attacking Elephantine and Philae at Aswan. Probable time that the statue of Augustus was seized. A bronze head of Augustus found at Meroë as booty from this raid.
23 BC Augustus counterattacks with his forces led by Petronius who seized Premnis in Kush.
ca. 22-21 BC Kushites counterattack at Qasr Ibrim, but are driven back.
22-19 BCE Augustus has temple built at Dendera on the Nile
21-20 BCE Kushites obtain reinforcements from central Africa and to avoid defeat Roman Legions at Premnis sue for peace. The Kushites send envoysfor negotiations at Samos Island and conclude a peace treaty between Romans andKushites. Kushite tribute is suspended and a permanent ambassadorial positionis established between Meroë and Roman Egypt. Romans withdraw to Maharraka,which establishes Roman control only for the Dodekaschoenos (Lower Nubia).Augustus Caesar establishes standing army as result of strain of war with Cush.
20-4 BCE Reigns of Meroitic King Natakamani and Kandake Amanitore. Third Augustan Legion in Numidia forments rebellion against Kushite rule.
19 BCE The Romans buy alliance of Garamantes (resident in what is now Chad and Libya) and establish base at the lake Chad, connected to Mediterranean by a route through the desert connected by Oases.
4-0 BCE The Garamantes to the west of the Nile, and the Beja (Blemmys) troops in Kush, as well as several other communities revolt (prompted by Rome) against ruling Kushite Dynasty. Meroe is captured by the Beja troops in the mutiny. Massive political unrest in Kushite empire, massive waves of migrations across Africa. The Beja dynasty takes over the massive Kushite empire (including Madagascar and the Comoros Islands and Central Africa). Southeast Asian crops (rice, yams, sugar cane, eggplant, bananas, and mangos) arrive in East Africa. Jesus Christ is born, and his family move to live in Egypt.