Thursday, October 6, 2011

Historia Africana Part I

NOTE: This is not my research.  I found this  timeline  on a website called . It is a comprehensive timeline from what would call the beginning of record keeping.  I would be honored to know who put this list together. Even if it is not accurate it is a good start as any to "find yourself'.

CHRONOLOGY [100,000 BCE to 1 BCE]

40,000,000 BCE The Great Rift Valley was formed in two phases, initially by ripping apart of the African and Arabian tectonic plates.

The second phase, which began 15,000,000 years ago and is still ongoing, ripped apart the African continental mass. Central and Eastern of Africa experienced violent tectonic instability and suddenly pulled away from the rest of the continent. It left behind a very long, steep-sided, Y-shaped valley filled with volcanos. The valley filled with a huge inland sea which drained and refilled several times over thousands of years. The Eastern arm of the valley stretches from Lebanon and North Syria, through the Red Sea, through Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, to Mozambique. The western arm, known as the Albertine Rift, through Congo, Uganda, Urwanda, Urundi, and Tanzania, where it links up with the Eastern Arm. It is the largest, deepest and longest [6000 miles] valley in the world. Temperatures in the valley make for the hottest and driest places on Earth. The Great Rift Valley is also home to several special and unique ecological systems, and is considered the first home of modern humans.

130,000 BCE The whole of what is now the Sahara desert was populated by Africans.

100,000 BCE Africans make artful incisions in ocher, making Africa home to the oldest images in the world.

50,000 BCE Africa suffers an extinction of 30% of its wildlife species.

41,000 BCE Africans mine iron in what is now Swaziland

37,000-200 BCE Africans in what is now central Nigeria (Nok) produce highly sophisticated sculpures.

35,000 BCE Use of tally sticks in Africa, using base 7 mathematics. Bones with orderly notches representing days in moon cycles.

28,000 BCE Climate deteriorated and the world entered the last major ice age. As a result of this, the Sahara reached up to the Ethiopian Highlands. Central Africa's mountain ranges were covered by ice flow. The River Nile, North of Khartoum, disappeared.

22,000-11,600 BCE Most of the Earth is covered in ice. In the last 4000 years of the ice age, the warming caused the sea level to rise 35 meters. A highly cultivated global Ice Age civilization is destroyed by water.

17,000 BCE Barley was being cultivated at Tushka.

13,000 BCE Cattle were already domesticated in Kenya. In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals including the pack ass, and a small screw horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia.

11,500-10,500 BCE End of the Ice Age. The climate of the Earth abruptly warmed by 20 degrees or more. Temperature increase of almost 59 degrees in the north polar region within a 50-year period, with rapid rise in sea level. 

10,500-6000 BCE Ice Age Civilization in Africa survives intact and is centered in the Uplands of the Nile Valley (the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa). The Sicilian historian Diodorus writing later claims that the African civilization became the source of lost Ice Age culture for the rest of the communities outside Africa, which had become disorganized and culturally impoverished. Diodorus claims that the Ethiopians (inclusive of all Africa, and not to be confused with modern Ethiopia) sent out, under one Osiris, a great army, "with the intention of visiting all the inhabited earth and teaching the race of men how to cultivate ... for he (Osiris) supposed that if he made men give up their savagery and adopt a gentle manner of life he would receive immortal honors..." Africans build the Great Sphinxes (supposedly originally two existed) and other astronomically-correct monuments and astro-geometrical structures all over the Earth. Highly organised astronomic-megalithic African-centred world civilization founds daughter civilizations in MesoAmerica, Eurasia and Oceania. Together the Africans and the other humans build massive stone calendars and clocks to map the sky.

10,000 BCE Climate change brought 500 years of persistent, heavy rains and transformed the Nile from a sluggish flow into a wild river with gorges one mile deep.

9000-2500 BCE What is now the sahara was a savanna grassland with herds of ostrich, giraffe, elephants and various antelopes. In the highlands and in shallow basins on the plains several lakes formed, which supported fish, crocodile and hippopotamus. These places were ideal campsites for the early hunters, and later the water sources were essential to support the large herds of cattle of the nomadic herders, who have left their finely worked stone and bone tools and decorated pottery, as well as heaps of their 'domestic refuse' at many sites along the lakeshores and highland valleys.

8200 BCE In southern and eastern Africa, stones engraved with geometric line designs and representations of animals.

8000 BCE Africans in the Congo basin practice brain surgery, and make complex mathematical notations. Lake Chad almost filled its present drainage basin [covering an area comparable in size to the state of Sudan], and spilled southwest out the Benue River to the Atlantic. The Danakil Depression is created when the crust beneath the ancient Danakil Sea, once part of the Red Sea, collapses. The remainder of the sea is trapped ni the depression, by basalt volcanic dykes, and gradually the water evaporates leaving massive salt flats, salt lakes and salt mines.

8000-2000 BCE People from central Africa occupy the plains of northwestern Africa.

6000 BCE Africans settle in the islands of the Mediterranean and in Europe.

5500 BC By this time, impressive images of animals and humans are engraved and later painted on rock surfaces in the still temperate Sahara. The Large Wild Fauna style features hunting scenes with big game, including the giant buffalo. The Bovidian Pastoral style refers to images of domestic herds thought to have been drawn by early farmers. Tissili and Tibesti Massifs are major centres of African culture, to which communities across Africa trace origins. The harp is depicted in rock art of the Sahara dating back over 7,000 years ago.

5000 BCE Massive volcanic explosion on the floor of the Albertine Rift destroys life and earthquakes cause highly cultivated (Ice Age Osirian) African civilization centered in the Great Lakes Region of Africa to decentralize amid war and inundation. Center of political organization in Africa moves northward to what is now Central and Northern Sudan, and Egypt.

4000 BCE People in the Nile Valley were rearing cattle, goats and sheep. They also engaged in fishing and collected grasses.

4500-2,500 BCE Africa is dominated by the Bovidian (cattle herder) culture, which also produces fine pottery vessels that were typically round, with wavy line, combed or dotted decorations. The drying of the climate forces the herders to move out of the Sahara.

3400 BCE Writing is already developed in Africa.

3300 BCE Bone and ivory labels with writing on them are sealed in the tomb of the King Scorpion I, at Abydos in what is now Southern Egypt.

3310 BCE Sorghum and millet were being cultivated in Africa.

3100 BCE Unification of Ta Waye (Egypt) by Thebaid Pharaoh Nesu Biti Aha after defeat of "Scorpion King". The conquest inscription of Pharaoh Djer at Sheikh Suliman in Ta-Seti (in Sudan); Massive fort at Buhen. Huge pyramid-astronomy complex built at Giza Plateau.

3000 BCE Rice was being cultivated in Africa. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since then dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa, especially in Ethiopia in the last 200 years.

2500 BCE The climate of the Sahara changes rapidly, as it dries up, nomadic herders turn to farming and start to settle in cities and towns across Africa. The international phenomenon known as the Beaker culture begins to affect western North Africa. Named for the distinctively shaped ceramics found in graves, the Beaker culture is associated with the emergence of a warrior mentality. North African rock art of this period continues to depict animals but also places a new emphasis on the human figure, equipped with weapons and adornments. People from the Great Lakes region of Africa settle along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea to become the Canaanites who dominated the lowlands between the Jordan river, the Mediterranean and the Sinai desert. Evidence of advanced manufacture and manipulation of glass.

2300 BCE Egyptians are electroplating antimony onto copper, and using batteries to generate electric current, as well as using electric gas discharge lamps.

2250-2050 BCE Rise of Central/Southern African Kerma civilization in Kush and Egypt. The Kerma culture is centered around cattle rearing and refined pottery.

2050-1795 BCE Reunification of Egypt by Pharaoh Mentuhotep II; start of the Middle Kingdom (Dynasties XI-XII); major forts and temples in Kush at Faras, Aksha, Semna, and Buhen. Conflict between Egyptian and Kushite ruling houses.

2043-1992 BCE Nebhepetre Mentuhotep of the 11th Dynasty maries the Medjey Princess Ashait

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