Thursday, October 6, 2011

Historia Africana Part2


Note: This is not my research. I found this time line on a web site called Africanfront.org. (I don't think it is there anymore)  It is a comprehensive time line of what I would call the beginning of record keeping. It would be an honor to know who put this list together.  Even if it is not accurate, it is a good start as any to research yourself.

CHRONOLOGICAL [100,000 BCE - 1 BCE]

1900-1575 BCE Further expansion of Kerma Culture in Kush; beaker pottery with red polish; huge tumulus burials for Kerma kings with sacrificial burials; massive brick 'defuffa' buildings.
1900 BCE A port is constructed. This port is named Rakouda and was located in the same place as the current Port Alexandria.

1887-1850 BCE Pharaoh Sesostris III (of royal Kushite descent) dominates Europe and Asia, and has extensive military, trading and fort network in Kush and Upper Egypt. Sesostris' African (Kushite) garrison stationed on the Black Sea coast at Colchis becomes the main center of trade and government in the Caucasus. The Garrison does not return home.

1874 BCE A canal connecting the Mediterranean to the Red Sea (original Suez Canal) is constructed by Sesostris III.

1786-1567 BCESecond Intermediate Period in Egypt (Dynasties XIII-XVII; Hyksos invade Egypt; horses and bronze swords introduced; Return of Kushite autonomy; Hyksos and Kushites ally against Egypto-Kushite Pharoah Kamose's effortto reunify the Nile Valley. Lower Egyptian royalty flee to Kush. Hebrews are captive in Egypt. Introduction of the horse and war chariots to the Nile valley.

1700 BCE Egyptian inscriptions refer to a region in Africa named Punt whose exports include giraffe, apes, ostriches, lions, leopards, elephant tusks, gold and precious stones.

1595 BCE Hittites fight with Egyptians over the control of Canaan (later known as Syria).

1570-1090 BCE Kerma culture begins gradual decline over the course of 500 years in Egypt and Kush. "New Kingdom"era begins in Egypt with Pharaohs who rule the northern Kush reaching the 4th cataract; Numerous forts, temples and towns built. Shaduf (keeyay) water-bucket irrigation technology introduced. The "King’s Son of Kush" becomes an established position that governs Lower Kush (Wawat) and Upper Egypt. Admiral Ahmose, son of Ebana reports that on the kings orders he went on campaign to Kush and penetrated beyond the 3rd cataract and inflict massive losses on Kushites. 

1570-1546 BCE Reign of Ahmose I and his wife Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, in Egypt, marking the beginning of the 18th Dynasty.Ahmose captures Avaris and the fortress Scharuhen in southern Palestine after 3 years-siege and thus completes the restoration of Egyptian independence from the Hyksos. He broadens vastly the Egyptian borders,including making three successful campaigns in Kush (following the revolt of Aata) and one in Asia. Ahmose restored an office of viceroy of Kush [styled as "King's Son of Kush"] and thus spread his own influence far to the south.

1550 BCE Use in Africa of acacia gum which contains lactic acid, as a natural spermicide, for contraceptive purposes

1546-1526 BCE Reign of Amenhotep I; Thuwre appointed Viceroy of Wawat and Kush

1530-1515 BCE Pharaoh Thutmosis I dominates north Africa and the near Asia as far as Euphrates, and attacks Kush.

1518 BCE Moses (of the Bible) is born at Memphis Egypt and is adopted by princess Neferubity Thutmosis (sister to Hatshepsut and Thutmosis II).

1498 BCE Kushite armies engage in battles with Egyptian army. Kushites defeat Egyptian forces and capture the whole of Egypt including the Mediterenean coast. The Egyptians unable to free themselves from the Kushite army ask for Moses' help. Moses organizes an Egyptian force and crossing an unguarded snake-infested region of the western desert,bypasses the main Kushite army formations so as to attack Saba (Sheba),the Kushite capital. During the fighting at the fortifications around Saba, Kushite Princess Tharbis demands marriage to Moses as condition  for truce, after which agreement the Kushite armies withdraw from Egypt.Moses returns to Egypt with Tharbis.

1478 BCE Moses flees from Egypt after killing an Egyptian.

1473-1458 BCE Reign of Queen Hatshepsut who builds temples in Upper Egypt and conducts trade with Punt in East Africa, and Ophir in Central and South Africa.

1450-1400 Punt is ruled by person with the title or name Parahu (probably Pharaoh), who is succeeded by a female empress called Itey the Corpulent.

1441 BCE Probably on instigation of Mitanni Empire, Ugarit in Canaan revolts against Egypt. Thutmosis III sends son and co-pharaoh Amenhotep II to put down the rebellion.

1438 BCE Moses returns from exile and confronts Pharaoh Thutmosis III over the enslavement of Hebrews. Thutmosis and a division of the Egyptian army are drowned by the Red Sea as a result of unusual hydrolic phenomenon. Amenhotep II succeedsThutmosis III after his body is recovered from the sea shore. Thousands of  Kushites join the exodus with the Hebrews as they leave Egypt. Danaan, Ogham and other leaders also leave Egypt with their followers and go to Greece and Ireland.

1410 BCE Joshua at the battle of Jericho. Africans involved in battle on both sides.

1403-1365 BCE Reign of Queen Tiy and Amenhotep III; builders of temple at Solb. Yuya the father of Queen Tiy is an official in the courts of both Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III. Yuya is also Master of Horse, a title which carried the name"Father of the God" (father to Pharaoh - Gen 45:8). Yuya served as chancellor of the North and as a priest of both Hermonthis and Amon during his career. His wife is named Tuya.

1398 BCE Moses dies and succeeded by Miriam, Aaron and Joshua. Miriam confronts Tharbis in the desert. Tharbis returns to Kush. Greeks start to refer to Ta Waye as Egypt, a corruption of HeKa Ptah (Spirit Temple of Ptah) the name of the Memphis temple of the god Ptah.

1352-1336 BCE Akhenaten pharaoh in Egypt and co-ruler with Queen Nefertiti, maternal niece of Egypto-Kushite Matriarch Tiy. Like his father, Akhenaten derives his right to rule from his marriage to a member of the matriarchal lineage, usually bearing the title God's Wife of Amun, or High Priestess of Isis. Whereas any male could serve as Pharaoh, and any woman as consort and mother of pharaoh, the real authority of the royal house and the sovereignty of the state always resided in the Queen matriarch (regentor high priestess of Amon or Isis). The women in Egypt carried the royal blood, not the men. King Tut therefore was married to Nefertiti, the daughter of the vizier Ay. Ay was a brother of the leading Egyptian royal, Queen Tiy (Anen was her other brother), and a son of Yuya andTuya. Nefertiti's mother is not known; Nefertiti was brought up by another wife of Ay named Tey.

1336-1334 BCE Smenkhkare (brother of king Tut) pharaoh of Egypt.

1334-1325 BCE Tutankhamun rules Egypt together with Queen Ankhesenamun. King Tut dies in 1325. Queen Ankhesenamun, writes to Suppiliumas, the Hittite king, requesting one of his sons for her to marry and make pharaoh. After some investigation by Suppiliumas, Ankhesenamun's request is granted, but his son, Zannanza is killed en-route while traveling through Syria.

1325-1321 BCE After Tut's death, 70 year-old Prime-Minister Ay, brother to Matriarch Tiy, and brother in-law of Amenhotep III, rules as Pharaoh and "marries" Ankhesanamun (King Tut's queen).

1321-1295 BCE Horemheb, commander of the Egyptian armies and co-regent with Ay, is Pharaoh in Egypt. Horemheb had no heir so he appointed a military leader, Ramesses I, to succeed him.

1295-1298 BCE Ramesses I is Pharaoh in Egypt.

1279-1213 BCE Reign of Ramses II, son of Seti I and Queen Tuya; Temples at Abu Simbel, Amara West, and Aksha.
1220 BCE Earthquake in Africa destroys the famous twin statues of Amenhotep III [the Colossi of Memnon].

1212-1203 BCE Merenptah, son of Ramesses II is Pharaoh in Egypt.

1210 BCE Egyptians and Pharaoh Merenptah record a major attack by Sea People.

1203-1197 Queen Tenosret and king Siptah are co-Pharaohs in Egypt.

1200 BCE Canaanite Phoenicians borrow the 27 (later 22) character alphabet from the Egyptians. New waves of invasions to the Middle East destroy the balance of order between Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. Hill, desert and steppe peoples mingle in such efforts. From now, wandering tribes include Hebrews, Philistines, Aramaeans, Phrygians, Dorians, Chaldeans,Medes (Kurds). Dorians Greeks invade from the north, plunder citadels and kings of Mycenae. They displaced older Greek inhabitants including the Ionians of Attica, and the Acheaens. The Sea People destroy Ugaritan ancient Canaanite city hear the coast dating back to Third Millennium. The Phrygians, a tribe from Thrace or Macedonia, moves into Anatolia with the Sea People.

1197-1195 Queen Tenosret is Pharaoh in Egypt.

1198-1151 BCE Reign of Ramesses III in Egypt.

1193 Beginning in his 5th regnal year, Ramesses III son of Sethnakht defeats attact of the delta by massive confederation of Sea peoples, including the "chief of the Pelusti", Sherdens of the Sea, Pelusti, Mycenians,Greeks etc, who have overrun Libya. The invasion includes an assortment of different communities, probably dislodged by food shortages caused by Dorian invasion of Mycenea, or by natural disasters. Invading Sea Peoples arrive with women and children numbering in the tens of thousands and overun Syrian coast. Ramesses kills thousands of Sea Peoples. The confederation of Sea Peoples advances by land and sea to Egypt, they overrun the Hittites and camp at Amor in Syria. Ramesses III fights them in a land battle in Canaan and a sea battle in a delta mouth. The Sea Peoples turn back west and go further, possibly settling among Sicilians, Sardinians, Estruscans. Philistine and Tjekker Sea   People who came overland, are resettled by Ramesses III in Egyptian military camps in Canaanite coastal areas, to guard the overland routes on behalf of Egypt. Hittite empire is devasted by Sea People.

1184-1174 BCE Trojan war. King Priam of Troy and many Trojans are under siege by "Sea Peoples" including Myceneans, Pelesgians, Acheaens, etc. Africans fighton both sides. Amazons fight on Trojan side. Memnon, the African king of Persia (and brother to Emathion, king of Arabia) arrives from Susa with 200,000 African troops to defend Troy and is killed by Achilles.

1180 BCE Up to 12,000 Sea Peoples invade Libyan coast and about 20,000 attack Egypt.

1100 BCE Massive stone forts and temples standing in Southern Africa (Ophir), with gold as the main export.

1069 BC-945 BC Egypt is controlled by the high priest of Amun at Thebes.

1069-715 BC Third Intermediate Period in Egypt. (Dynasties XXI-XXIV), rival dynasties in Egypt Tanite (XXI dynasty, 1069-945 BC) established in Delta; later replaced by another dynasty at Bubastis. Herihor serves as King’s Son of Kush under Ramses XI. As Dynasty XX closes Herihor (ca.1060 BC) becomes High Priest of Amun and his son Piankhi becomes governor of the Thebaid province.
1020-960 BCE In 1020 Makeda is born in Ophir and educated in Abbysinia. Makeda’s mother is queen Ismenie and her father is Chief Minister to Za Sebado, king of Kush.Angabo from Saba (Sheba), the capital of Kush, arrives in Abyssinia and rescinds order to sacrifice Makeda to a serpent named Wainaba. Angabo becomes king in Abbyssina. Makeda’s father succeeds Za Sabado as King in Saba.


1005 BCE Makeda’s father dies and she becomes matriarch ruler of Kush and the rest of Africa, including Egypt, at age 15. 


To Be Continued...

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